Tag Archives: War of 1812

West Point Graduates Killed in Action

Much of the material for the site is taken from the on line Cullum Register created and maintained by Bill Thayer.

Is there an appropriate way to Honor the Fallen? The New Zealand Military has a unique way. It may be offensive to some yet the link is added. Sometimes it is hard to express what the loss of a Friend, a Classmate, a Soldier you are Responsible For, really means –

Haka Farewell


Maori Troops in North Africa 1941
New Zealand’s Maori soldiers performing a haka during World War II in North Africa.

Web site which contains material used on this page


However Bill’s listings only cover the years 1802 to 1861. The Cullum Register maintained by the Special Collections & Archives Section at the West Point Library lists Graduates from 1802 to 1950.

U. S. Military Academy Library




The reason this effort is being made is due to a recent visit to the Naval Academy to attend the Army – Navy Wrestling Match in Alumni Hall. As I sat down I observed a brass plaque on the arm rest. It named a Naval Academy Graduate with the following – Cruiser USS Houston 1942. It was sobering as I knew exactly what it meant – that graduate had gone down with The Galloping Ghost of the Java Coast – sunk by the Japanese in 1942.


Please Note – this Web Site does not advertise, however many of the links which are listed do advertise. The historical material they provided is essential, requiring us to list the sites.

West Point Graduates who died in captivity are included in this listing. As an example of why Captives are listed – After his capture, “Bill Kellum” organized resistance to Chinese indoctrination at Camp Five. His punishment was confinement to the camp hospital, where he was systematically killed. Big Bill Kellum died in June 1951.

The Oryoku Maru, Shinyo Maru, and perhaps the 8 Americans on the Juny Maru involved killing of prisoners by Japanese guards and Japanese machine gun crews on shore as the Prisoners swam away from the ship.


Cadets are surrounded by and live in the shadow of some of West Points greatest Graduates. The Class of 1939 provided 2 volumes listing recipients of the Medal of Honor while Plaques of each are on the walls throughout the Academy. In the War of 1812 of the total 120 Graduates 9 were Killed in Action, with another dying as a prisoner; several went down in the Eastern Indian Wars; 105 in the Civil War; some 500 died in World War II, 157 in Korean, 273 Vietnam and, over 81 have been killed in Iraq and Afghanistan in the global war on terror.

The Civil War/World War II Connection
By Stuart Zelman
Here are famous World War II personalities who are connected in one way or another to famous (and not famous) Civil war personalities. Some of the names you should recognize; others will surprise you. By no means is this list complete.
Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, great (?) grandfather of…
Brig. General Nathan Bedford Forrest III, USAAF – Shot down over the Baltic Sea while leading a bombing raid on the submarine yards at Kiel in June of 1943. His body was found when it washed up at a German Seaplane base in September of that year. He was buried by a detail of the German Navy, but was disinterred in 1947 to be reburied in Arlington National Cemetery.
Major General Arthur MacArthur – 24th Wisconsin Infantry, Medal of Honor recipient for planting the flag on Missionary Ridge, fought in the Indian wars and the Spanish-American War. He was the father of…

General Douglas MacArthur

General Adna R. Chaffee, Sr. – 1st Lt. in the 6th US Cavalry at the end of the Civil War. He was brevetted Captain at the end of the Civil War because of his conduct at Dinwiddie Court House. He fought in the Indian Wars and the Spanish-American Wars, finally serving as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. He is the father of…

Major General Adna R. Chaffee, Jr. – He and Patton are considered to be the father of the WWII-era Armored Corps.

Confederate Lt. Col. Waller Tazewell Patton – led the 7th Virginia during Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg where he was mortally wounded, great uncle of…

Major General George S. Patton, Jr.

Col. George S. Patton, killed at 3rd Winchester, grandfather of…

Major General George S. Patton, Jr.

Confederate Col. Charles Marshall, Gen. Lee’s aide-de-camp/adjutant, present with Lee at the McLean House at Appomattox, uncle of…

WWII U.S. Chief of Staff, and creator of Marshall Plan, Major General George C. Marshall.

Confederate Major General Fitzhugh Lee, Cavalry leader, nephew of Robert E. Lee, grandfather of…

Captain Fitzhugh Lee III, USN – Pilot on the pre-war carrier USS Enterprise, commanded Escort Carrier CVE 61 (USS Manila Bay) at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, present at surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri, aide to Secretary of the Navy John L. Sullivan during the Truman Administration, retired in 1962 with the rank of Vice Admiral.

Lt. General U.S. Grant, grandfather of…

General U.S. Grant III, WWII-era Civil Defense Planner.

Confederate Major General Simon Bolivar Buckner, surrendered Fort Donelson to Grant, father of…

Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. – WWII-era USMC General, killed by a sniper at Okinawa.

Confederate Major Manning H. Kimmel, Lt. in the 2nd US Cavalry in the pre-Civil War army and had been involved in an excursion into Mexico by Texas Rangers and U.S. Regulars after a raid led by Mexican Bandito Juan Nepomuceno “Cheno” Cortina on Brownsville, Texas (Lee, Stoneman, and Heinzelman were also present), AAG to Brig. Gen. Frank Anderson CSA, father of…

Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, of Pearl Harbor fame.

Also the Grandfather of Lt. Commander Manning M. Kimmel, commanding officer of the submarine USS Robalo (SS-273). Survived the sinking of his submarine after hitting a mine off of Borneo but was one of those prisoners burnt alive in “Massacre of Palawan” in December of 1944.

Also the Grandfather of Captain Thomas K. Kimmel (brother of Manning M.), commanding officer of the submarine USS Bergall. Pulled from combat duty by Admiral Christie after Lt. Commander Kimmel was reported MIA. He commanded the Fleet Submarine Training School at Portsmouth, NH until the conclusion of hostilities whereupon he returned to the command of the USS Bergall. After holding various other commands he finally retired (circa 1960s) from a career in the Navy and began to focus his efforts to clear his father’s name. He was finally successful but had passed away by the time Admiral Kimmel (and General Short) were finally exonerated in August of 1995.

Confederate Private William A. McCain, 5th Mississippi Cavalry, grandfather of…

Admiral John S. “Slew” McCain, Sr. – commander of Task Force 58 in Halsey’s Third Fleet, and present at surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri. He died only four days afterward. (He was also the grandfather of Republican Presidential candidate Senator John S. McCain III.)

Major General George E. Pickett – one of three Generals that led the charge on the Union center on the third at Gettysburg, an event that has come down through history as “Pickett’s Charge.” Forever afterward blamed Lee for the decimation of his Division. Great grandfather of…

Colonel George E. Pickett IV – graduated from West Point in 1942, serving in World War II and the Korean War.

The Wilson home located in Rice, Virgina, was used as a hospital for both Union and Confederate troops during and after the Battle of Saylor’s Creek.

In 1940 Sam Wilson, stirred by one of Churchill’s most rousing speeches after the debacle of Dunkirk, jogged 7 miles in the pouring rain to the National Guard Amory in Farmville where he enlisted. In 1942 he was sent to OCS after which he taught guerrilla tactics at Fort Benning. By 1943 he found himself in Burma as a 19 year old 1st Lieutenant and Chief Reconnaissance Officer in the 5037th Composite Unit (Provisional) otherwise known as… Merrill’s Marauders. He served the military for 37 years (three of them as a civilian) and retired from the army as a Lieutenant General in 1977. He is also an inductee in the Army Ranger Hall Of Fame and the Military Intelligence Hall Of Fame. As of this writing he enjoys his retirement at his family homestead still in Rice, Virginia.

Helen Dortch Longstreet, General Longstreet’s second wife (1863-1962) contributed to the war effort. In 1943 at the age of 80 she worked at Bell Aircraft as a riveter! (Photo here.)

Captain Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright II commanded the USS Harriet Lane, taking part in the Battle of New Orleans. He also took part in the operations against Vicksburg. He was killed on January 1, 1863 attacking coastal batteries and forts at Galveston, Texas. He is the great-grandfather of…
General Jonathan Mayhew “Skinny” Wainwright IV – Commander of Allied forces in the Philippines during WWII, who had to surrender Allied forces on Bataan to the Japanese. He was held as a P.O.W. until liberated by forces with the Red Army in August 1945. Medal of Honor recipient. Died September 2, 1953.

Rufus King held a Brigadier General’s commission in the Union Army where he commanded Wisconsin militia and organized what would become the famed “Iron Brigade.” Unfortunately his bouts of epilepsy forced him to resign his commission. Abner Doubleday would replace him.
Rufus King, Jr. started out as a Private in Colonel Marshall Leffert’s 7th NY Militia. He managed to get commissioned as a lieutenant in the 4th US Artillery, eventually commanding Battery A. He is noted for his bravery during the Seven Days Battles when he took command of Batteries A and C at the battle of White Oak Swamp on June 30, 1862. Because of his actions, he would win the highest award, the Medal of Honor. He would eventually retire with the rank of Major.

Brigadier General Archibald Gracie III, though NY born and bred, threw his lot in with the Confederacy when the war broke out. He received a commission as a major in the 11th Alabama Infantry. He eventually commanded a Brigade; his most notable battles being fought under Longstreet at Bean’s Station and at Chickamauga. He was killed by an artillery shell on Dec. 2, 1864 while observing the enemy during the Seige of Petersburg.

These two men were related and were ancestors of…

Admiral William F. “Bull” Halsey, Jr., Vice Admiral. He was on his flagship the USS Enterprise (CV-6) when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. He planned and led raids on Japanese installations in the early part of the war. Just before the Midway campaign he was side-lined with a chronic skin condition forcing him to take medical leave and giving up his command to Admiral Spruance. He returned in time to take command during the Guadalcanal campaign and the subsequent battles in the Solomon Islands chain. He then received command of the Third Fleet, leading it in the Battles of the Palaus, Leyte Gulf and Luzon. He retired from active service in 1947. As a civilian he served on the board of ITT. He passed away at the age of 76 on August 16, 1959.

General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, great grandfather of…

Col. Thomas J. Jackson Christian, Jr. – Graduate of West Point, Class of 1939, where he was assigned to the artillery as a 2nd Lt. He shortly transferred to the Army Air Corps. Upon graduation in 1941 he was assigned to the Philippines. When war broke out he flew various missions in the South Pacific area (Bataan, Mindanao, Australia) until shot down. Given up for dead, he survived living with the natives until rescued. He returned to duty flying 60 combat missions over Guadalcanal. He was granted leave and returned to the States where he married and was assigned the command of the 361st Fighter Group. While in the European Theater he flew 70 combat missions earning the DSC, Air Medal, and Purple Heart. He was shot down August 12, 1944 in a P-51 Mustang over Arras, France. His body was never recovered.

General Robert Edward Lee, CSA, cousin of…
Vice Admiral William Augustus “Ching” Lee, Jr., USN

Graduated from the US Naval Academy, Class of 1904. Earned the nickname “Ching” because of his love of the Orient. Participated on the Academy’s rifle team. In World War I he served on destroyers. He also participated in 14 events in the 1920 Olympics winning 7 medals; 5 of them the Gold Medal. In WWII he commanded Battleship Division 6 at Guadalcanal (USS Washington and South Dakota) battering IJN Battleship Kirishima in a decisive night-time engagement in November of 1942. This was the first naval battle fought mostly by radar. The Kirishima was so badly damaged that she had to be scuttled by her own forces. In 1944 he was promoted to Vice Admiral, Commander Battleships Pacific Fleet. He died of a sudden heart attack on August 25, 1945.

Major John William Puller, 5th Virginia Cavalry, grandfather of…
Lt. General Lewis. B. “Chesty” Puller

Puller was influenced from the tales of Confederate Veterans and the exploits of Stonewall Jackson growing up in his home state of Virginia.

He attended VMI and enlisted in the Marines after graduation. Superiors recognized his abilities; he was sent to the NCO and OC Schools. He graduated with the rank of 2nd Lt., but in the streamlining of the Armed Forces after the war he was demoted to the rank of Corporal. In this capacity he served in Haiti fighting the Rebels. He returned to the States and regained his officer’s commission. A stint fighting in Nicaragua followed. He then commanded a detachment of the China Marines and then served as the head of the Marine Basic Training School based in Philadelphia. During World War II, Puller led Marines at Guadalcanal, Cape Gloucester, and Peleiu racking up an impressive array of decorations: 5 Navy Crosses, the Silver Star, The Legion of Merit and the Distinguished Service Cross, to name a few. Puller served in the Korean War and was forcibly retired with the rank of Lt. General in 1955 after suffering a stroke. He passed away on October 11, 1971.

Richard L. Ewell, a Lieutenant in the 24th Kentucky Infantry (Union) and kin to Confederate General Richard S. Ewell; grandfather of…
Lt. Col. Julian Ewell, commanding the 3rd Battalion of the 501st of the 101st Airborne Division, then the entire regiment. He landed with his men in the early morning hours of D-Day June 6 behind the Utah beach sector. He fought with his men in Operation Market Garden and the Battle of the Bulge, most notably at Bastogne. Col. Ewell served in Korea as Colonel in the 9th infantry Regiment. In Vietnam, Major General Ewell commanded the 9th Infantry Division during Operation Speedy Express. He later was promoted to Lt. General and commanded the II Field Force. After the war he served as Chief of Staff of the NATO Southern Command until his retirement in 1973. He passed away in 2009 at the age of 93.

Pvt. Samuel E. Johnson of Company B, 26th Texas Cavalry. Patrolled along the Rio Grande and participated in the Red River Campaign. Great-grandfather of…
Lyndon Banes Johnson, President of the United States, 1963-1969. In World War II, he was a Commander in the USNR. He was part of a three-man team that and monitored and reported on conditions in the South Pacific; reporting back to the Department of the Navy, Congress and President Roosevelt. He also was Chairman of a Naval Affairs committee that made recommendations to upgrade the efficiency of Naval commands, personnel and ships.

Private George Nixon, 73rd Ohio, mortally wounded at Gettysburg and dying July 10, 1863. Grandfather of…
Richard Nixon, President of the United States, 1969-1974. In World War II he was commissioned a Ensign in the USNR. After attending school in Quonset Point, RI, he got posted as an aide to the Executive Officer at the Naval Reserve Aviation base in Ottumwa, Iowa. He requested and got posted to Guadalcanal and Green Islands as the Officer In Charge of the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command. In the summer of 1944 he returned to California where he assigned to Fleet Air Wing 8 until December of that year. Until the close of the war he served in various capacities in the Bureau of Aeronautics. He retired from active duty in 1946 with the rank of Lt. Commander.

Lt. General Nelson A. Miles, father of…
Major General Sherman Miles. Sherman Miles was born in 1882 and was named after his Uncle, Major General William T. Sherman. He was a graduated of the USMA at West Point, class of 1905, and was commissioned as a 2nd lt. in the 11th Cavalry.

In WWI he served as a military attaché in the Balkans and an observer in Russia until 1916. He was promoted to the rank of Major and attached to the General Staff. He then was sent Western Front continuing the role of observer during the Argonne Offensive. By the Armistice he had attained the rank of Brevet Lt. Colonel.

After WWI, he was a member of the Coolidge Mission. At the conclusion of that task he attended various schools and posts eventually landing the job as Commander of the United States Army Field Artillery School at Fort Sill until September 1, 1939. He then was promoted to Brigadier General, being posted to London as military attaché. A year later he returned to the U.S. where he was given the job as the head of the Military Intelligence Division on General Marshall’s Staff. The debacle of Pearl Harbor and intelligence failures resulted in his being reassigned from Marshall’s staff to the First Service Command; but still attaining the rank of Major General. Miles served in this capacity until his retirement in 1946 after forty-one years of military service.

Major General Sherman Miles died in 1966.


The information provided for each Graduate should start with the circumstances surrounding his or her action including awards, Cadet days and last in order personnel information including family.

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – War of 1812

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Southern Indian Wars

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Mexican War

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Civil War

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Plains Indian Wars

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Spanish American War‎

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – World War I

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – World War II

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Korea

West Point Graduates Killed in Action – Vietnam

“West Point Graduates Killed in Action – War on Terror”

West Point Graduates KIA 1812 – 1900


Web Site – Association of Graduates list of Graduates Killed in Action – page 54


There are 5 more listed at the end of the record

Click to access V1870.PDF



Some of what they wrote years ago contain more of love for another, than what we allow ourselves to write in our sophisticated world.

Details of the War – participants, dates, battles and important names.

Clicking on a subject provides advertisement so you must copy each and then do a search



American Battle Monuments Commission – http://www.abmc.gov/search/wwi.php

Alexander R. Thompson

Alexander Ramsay Thompson

(Born N. Y. , Ap’d N. Y.)

Born Feb. 10, 1793.

Cadet of the Military Academy, Nov. 21, 1810, to Jan. 3, 1812, when he was graduated and promoted in the Army to First Lieut., 6th Infantry, Jan. 3, 1812.

Served: in the War of 1812 -1815 with Great Britain, on the Northern Frontier, 1812, – in General Wilkinson’s Descent of the St. Lawrence River, 1813, – and in the Campaign of 1813 -1814, on the Lake Champlain line of operations, being engaged in the Battle of Plattsburg, N. Y., (Captain, 6th Infantry, May 1, 1814) Sep. 11, 1814.

In garrison at “Fort Niagara”, N. Y., 1815- 1816; on Recruiting (Captain, 2d Infantry, on Reduction of Army, May 17, 1815) service, 1818 – 1819; in garrison at Sackett’s Harbor, N. Y., 1819 – 1821, -Greenbush, N. Y., 1821, – and Ft. Brady, Mich., 1821 – 1823; on Recruiting (Bvt. Major, May 1, 1824, for Faithful Service Ten Years in one Grade)
service 1824 – 1825.

On frontier duty at Ft. Niagara, N. Y., 1825 – 1826, – Ft. Howard, Wis., 1826, – Ft. Mackinac, Mich., 1826 – 1828, and Ft. Gratiot, Mich., 1828 – 1831, 1831 – 1832,
on “Black Hawk Expedition,” but (Major, 6th Infantry, Apr. 4, 1832) not at the seat of war, 1832.

On frontier duty at Ft. Mackinac, Mich., 1832 – 1833, – Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., 1833, 1834, – and Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 1834; on Recruiting service, 1835 – 1836; on frontier duty at Ft. Jesup, La., 1836, – Camp Sabine, La., 1836, – and Ft. Jesup, La., 1836

In the Florida War, 1837, being engaged against the Seminole Indians, (Lieut.â╢łColonel, 6th Infantry, Sep. 6, 1837) at the Battle of Okee-choâ╢łbee, where, at the head of his regiment, in a desperate charge, he was Killed,2 Dec. 25, 1837: Aged 44.

Buried, West Point Cemetery, West Point, NY.

The Author – Bill Thayer’s Notes:

Was the son of Captain Alexander Thompson, of the regiment of Artillerists and Engineers, in 1794.

“Although,” in the language of the official despatch, “he received two balls from the fire of the enemy early in the action, which wounded him severely, yet he appeared to disregard them, and continued to give his orders with the same coolness that he would have done had his regiment been under review, or any other parade duty. Advancing, he received a third ball, which at once deprived him of life: his last words were, ‘Keep steady, men; charge the hammock â╢╰ remember the regiment to which you belong.’ ”

Thayer’s Note:

The phrase “but not at the seat of war” occurs frequently in the Register in connection with the Black Hawk War; the explanation in most cases is the one given in the biographical sketch of James Monroe – not in the area of the War. (q.v.).

Fort Dearborn Massacre

During the War of 1812, General William Hull ordered the evacuation of Fort Dearborn in August 1812. Heald oversaw the evacuation, but on August 15 the evacuees were ambushed by about 500 Potawatomi Indians in the Fort Dearborn Massacre. The Potawatomi captured Heald and his wife, Rebekah, and ransomed them to the British. Of the 148 soldiers, women and children who evacuated the fort, 86 were killed in the ambush. The Potawatomi burned the fort to the ground the next day.

Death of Ensign Ronan – page 56


Interesting history inline below



Listing of Killed –

















Images of the surrender


Several additional links




Surrender Document


Interesting Letters


Joseph M. Wilcox

Taken from http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/72*.html

Born Mar. 15, 1790, Killingworth, CT.

Cadet of the Military Academy, June 15, 1808, to Jan. 3, 1812, when he was graduated 1st in his Class, and promoted in the Army to First Lieut., 3d Infantry, Jan. 3, 1812.

Served in the War of 1812-1815 with Great Britain, in the Campaign of 1813-1814, under Major-General Jackson, against the Creek Indians, and after two desperate fights with the hostile savages on the Alabama River, was Killed (Tomahawked and Scalped), Jan. 15, 1814: Aged 23.1

Buried, Camden Cemetery, Camden, AL.

Wilcox County, Alabama, formed from land ceded to the United States as a result of the Creek War, is named in his honor, although he was buried at Fort Claiborne in Monroe County.

Bill Thayer’s Note taken in part from the Register of Graduates:

1 Lieut. Wilcox was the son of a Revolutionary officer, and had only reached his 23d year when he was killed. “No person, under the same circumstances as those which preceded his unfortunate and untimely death, could have exhibited more skill, judgment, activity, or determined courage. Such blood was spilt at Thermopylae.” In compliment to his daring gallantry a county in Alabama was named after him.







Taken from http://battlefieldbiker.com/Battles-of-Enitachopco-and-Emuckfau-Emuckfaw-Creek-22-24-January-1814

Battles of Enitachopco and Emuckfau / Emuckfaw Creek 22-24 January 1814

The War of 1812 coincided with an uprising amongst part of the Creek Indian nation that was rebelling against the U.S. governments attempts to “civilize” them. For the “volunteers” of Tennessee, including future President Andrew Jackson, the majority of the War of 1812 was spent fighting Indians and not the British.

In 1811, Tecumseh of the Shawnee, visited the distant cousin Creek and encouraged rebellion against the white man’s ways. The tribe split over whether to follow their ancient ways or throw in their lots with the white man. Those for integration with the USA were called “White Sticks” and those who favored fighting were called “Red Sticks.” This Creek civil war was destined to go beyond the nation and did soon enough with a slaughter of over 250 whites / mixed raced Creeks near Mobile, Alabama in August 1813. This caused the predictable call for retribution and U.S. military action. Enter “Old Hickory” Jackson and his Tennessee Volunteers.

In late 1813, Jackson entered Alabama and set up a supply post (Fort Deposit)and a forward post on the Coosa river(Fort Strother) in northern Alabama and began operations against the Creek. Almost from the start, Jackson was beset with mutinous Tennesseans who felt that time spent back in Tennessee counted as part of their enlistment, whilst Jackson felt it did not. Many Tennesseans left, but Jackson pushed on with what was left of his force and a couple of green Regiments that had just arrived from west Tennessee.
Being Old Hickory meant doing hard things anyway, so Jackson set off for the known Creek encampment at Emuckfau / Emuckfaw Creek.

He camped within hearshot of the encampment on 21 January 1814 and sent out patrols to find them. The patrols reported that not only did they find them, the Creeks knew of them too. At daybreak the next day, the Creek attacked front and rear, but were thrown back. Jackson counter-attacked and killed a good many. He then wanted to take the initiative and destroy their base. Jackson sent his old friend, General John Coffey, to root out the Creek base on Embuckfau Creek. Coffey went forth, but found the place too well defended and retired. Once Coffey returned, the Creeks attacked Jackson again with a feign on one side and a main attack on the other. Once again, the Creeks were thrown back, but Jackson was in trouble with bloodied, green troops in “Indian Country” with little back up. Jackson felt he need to retire and re-enforce at Fort Strother.

On his way out of the area, Jackson camped on Enitachopco Creek on the 23rd and fixed fortifications, knowing that another attack was likely. Luckily, they got a quiet night and they headed out in the morning. The quiet was not to last. Not long on the trail, they began crossing Enitachopco Creek and the rear guard was put to the run by the Creek attack. The panic spread and a meltdown was looking likely, but Jackson managed to pull together enough to fend off the attack with even his Nashville artillerymen fighting hand-to-hand. Eventually the tide turned with more of the lead elements re-crossing the creek to take part. The Creek warriors began to slip and finally decided getting away from Old Hickory was better than dying in place.

Jackson had the upper hand in both engagements, eventually, but had found out how hard it was going to be to fight in this nearly unsupportable backwater of eastern Alabama.

Taken from http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cmamcrk4/pkt41.html

Albert James Pickett: HISTORY OF ALABAMA.
(Kindly contributed by William C. Bell)



Since the battle of Talladega, Jackson had encountered innumerable difficulties and mortifications, owing to the failure of contractors and the mutiny of his troops, who were finally reduced to one hundred men by the expiration of their time of service. He was now compelled to employ Cherokees to garrison Fort Armstrong, upon the Coosahatchie, and protect the stores at Ross’s. Almost alone, in a savage land, he yet constantly rode between Fort Strother and Ditto’s Landing to hasten supplies for the new army, which he had employed Governor Blount to raise for him. At last two regiments, one of them commanded by Colonel Perkins and the other by Colonel Higgins, numbering together eight hundred and fifty men, who had only enlisted for sixty days, reached Fort Strother.

Jan. 14 1814: Well understanding the character of minute men like these, who must be constantly employed, Jackson immediately marched them across the Coosa to the late battle ground of Talladega, where he was joined by two hundred Cherokees and Creeks, who evinced great alarm at the weakness which the command presented.

Jan. 16: Continuing the march towards the Tallapoosa, the army encamped at Enitachopco, a Hillabee village, and the next day fell into many fresh beaten trails, indicating the proximity of a large force.

Jan. 21 1814: Here Jackson determined to halt for the purpose of reconnoitre. Before dark his encampment was formed, his army thrown into a hollow square, his pickets and spies sent out, his sentinels doubled, and his fires lighted some distance outside of the lines. About ten o’clock at night one of the pickets firing upon three of the enemy succeeded in killing one, and at the hour of eleven the spies reported a large encampment three miles distant, where the savages were whooping and dancing, and, being apprised of the approach of the Americans, were sending off their women and children.

Jan. 22: About six o?clock in the morning the Indians suddenly fell upon Jackson’s flank, and upon the left of his rear, maintaining a vigorous attack for a half hour. General Coffee, AdjutantGeneral Sitler, and Inspector-General Carroll rode rapidly to the scene of action as soon as the firing commenced, animating the men, who firmly kept the assailants at bay. Morning shed its light upon the exciting scene, enabling Captain Terrill’s infantry to reinforce the left flank, when the whole line was led to the charge by General Coffee, supported by Colonels Higgins and Carroll and the friendly Indians, which forced the savages to abandon the ground in a rapid manner. They were pursued with slaughter for two miles. Coffee being then ordered, with four hundred men and the friendly Indians, to burn up their encampment, advanced, and, finding it strongly fortified, returned for the artillery. Shortly afterwards, a body of the enemy boldly advanced and attacked the right wing of Jackson’s encampment. Coffee again charged, but, through mistake, only forty-five men followed him, composing his own company of volunteer officers; but the friendly Indians were sent by Jackson to his support. Dismounting his men, he now pursued the “Red Sticks” to the swamp of a creek.*

* The Indian war-party were often called the “Red Sticks,” because their war-clubs were invariably painted red.

Jackson had ordered his left flank to remain firm, and now the Indians came rushing with yells against it. Repairing to that point, and ordering up Captain Terrill to his support, the whole line received the enemy with intrepidity, and, after a few fires, advanced to the charge under the impetuous Carroll. Again the Red Sticks fled before the bayonet, the Americans pursuing some distance, and marking their trails with blood. In the meantime, Coffee kept the enemy, who had now returned upon him from the swamp, at bay until Jackson strengthened him with a reinforcement of a hundred friendly warriors, at the head of whom was Jim Fife. Coffee again charged, when the Red Sticks once more gave way, and the pursuit was continued for three miles, with the loss of forty-five savages.

The brave Creeks had now been repulsed in every attempt, but they exhibited a ferocity and courage which commanded the serious consideration of Jackson, whose force was weaker than he desired. The horses had been without cane and without corn for two days, and but few rations remained for the men. The wounded were numerous, and the enemy would doubtless soon be reinforced. Jackson determined to return to Fort Strother with all possible despatch. The remainder of the day was employed in collecting and burying the dead, dressing the wounded and fortifying the camp; but the morning dawned without another attack.*

* The battle of Emuckfau was fought near a creek of that name, which runs south into the Tallapoosa river, in Tallapoosa county, Alabama.

The army began the retrograde march about ten o?clock a.m., bearing the wounded, among whom was Coffee, in litters, constructed of the hides of the slain horses.

Jan. 23 1814: Jackson reached Enitachopco before night without molestation, and fortified himself at a place a quarter of a mile from the creek, around which the Red Sticks prowled, but refrained from attack. Dreading an onset at the ford of the creek, by which his army had passed a few days before, and which afforded great facilities for Indian ambuscades, the commander despatched spies in search of a less exposed crossing place.

Jan 24: Six hundred yards lower down was selected, and thither he advanced his troops in the morning. Carroll commended the rear guard, Colonel Perkins the right column, and Colonel Stump the left. In case of attack, Carroll was to face about, display and maintain his position, while the other two colonels were to face outward, wheel back on their pivots, and attack the Red Sticks on both flanks.

The wounded and the front guard had passed the creek, and as Jackson was upon the eastern bank, superintending the crossing of the army, an alarm gun was heard, which was succeeded by a fierce attack of the savages upon the rearguard of Captain Russell’s spies. Colonel Carroll ordered the rear-guard to halt and form, when the right and left columns, seized by a sudden panic, fled without firing a gun, drawing after them most of the centre, with their officers foremost in the flight, at the head of whom was Colonel Stump, who came plunging down the bank, near the exasperated commander-inchief, who made an unsuccessful effort to cut him down with his sword. With only twenty-five men, under Captain Quarles, Carroll gallantly checked the advance of the Red Sticks. The artillery was under the command of Lieutenant Armstrong, in the absence of Captain Deadrick, who now ordered his company, armed with muskets, to advance to the top of the hill, while he, with Constantine Perkins and a few others, dragged up the six-pounder from the middle of the creek. Instantly in their position, they maintained it against ten times their number, until Armstrong reached them with his piece.

Jan. 24 1814: Discovering that, in the hurry of separating the gun from the limbers, the rammer and pricker had been left tied to the latter, with wonderful presence of mind, and while Indian bullets rattled like hail around them, Constantine Perkins and Craven Jackson, two of the gunners, supplied the deficiency. Perkins took off his bayonet, and rammed the cartridge home with his musket, and Jackson, drawing his ramrod, employed it as a pricker, priming with a musket cartridge.* The six-pounder was thus twice charged, pouring grape among the savages, then only a few yards distant. Several comrades of these men fell around them, and, after the second fire, the little artillery company furiously charged on the assailants, who became more cautious in their approaches. Captain Gordon’s spies, in front of the army when the alarm was given, made a circuit and attacked the left flank of the Indians. At the same time, a number of the rear-guard and flankers, rallied by Jackson, re-crossed the creek and joined in the fight. The savages, finding that the whole army was now brought against them, fled, throwing away their packs and leaving upon the field the bodies of twenty-six warriors.

* Constantine Perkins was born in Knox county, Tennessee the 17th August, 1792 He graduated at Cumberland College in 1813, and was with Jackson at the battle of Talladega in Carroll’s Advance guard, where he greatly distinguished himself. Refusing to abandon Jackson in a hostile land, he remained with the small number who adhered to him In the two battles at Emuckfau, he fought side by side with the bravest. When the Creek war was at an end, he studied law at Nashville. He was elected solicitor of one of the Tennessee circuits but, removing to Alabama in 1819, was elected solicitor of the third circuit, which office he held until 1826, when he was elected attorney-general In 1834, the people of Tuscaloosa county placed him in the State Senate of which he was a member until the 17th September, 1836, when he died.

One hundred and eighty-nine bodies of the enemy were counted upon the fields of Emuckfau and Enitachopco. The loss of the Americans was twenty killed and seventy-five wounded, several of whom afterwards died. Major A. Donaldson was killed at Emuckfau. Captain Hamilton, Lieutenant Armstrong, Bird Evans, Hiram Bradford and Jacob McGivock were severely wounded. The first named afterwards died. Jackson, in his report, spoke in the highest terms of the bravery of these men, and also of that of Captains Sitler, Quarles, Elliott and Pipkin, and Colonel Higgins. He also mentioned the gallantry of the venerable Judge Cocke, who, at the age of sixty-five, was in the midst of these battles.

The army continued its march to Fort Strother, where Jackson ordered the sixty day volunteers to march to Huntsville for honorable discharge, at the same time granting to Coffee and his officers the privilege of returning home, until the government again demanded their services, to all of whom he addressed a kind letter, commending their patriotism and bravery. Jan. 28 1814: A court martial acquitted Colonel Perkins of the charge of cowardice, at the battle of Enitachopco; but Colonel Stump was found guilty, and cashiered.*

* Kendall’s Life of Jackson, pp. 252-264. Waldo, Eaton, etc

Such is the American account of these engagements. The brave natives of Alabama had no writers among them to record their achievements. Several Chiefs and leading warriors, who were in the battles of Emuckfau and Enitachopco, have stated to us that they “whipped Captain Jackson, and run him to the Coosa river.” The authors who have written upon these campaigns speak of the weakness of the American force. It consisted of seven hundred and sixty-seven men, with two hundred friendly Indians. We are enabled to state, with confidence that the force of the Red Sticks, in these battles, did not exceed five hundred warriors, for the larger body had assembled below, to attack Floyd, while others were fortifying the Horse-Shoe, and various other places.

It has been seen that the Georgia army, after the battle of Auttose, retired to the Chattahoochie. There, for more than six weeks, it had reposed, for the want of expected supplies. When General Floyd recovered from his wound, he again marched to the seat of war, with a force of twelve hundred and twenty-seven, rank and file, besides a company of cavalry and four hundred friendly Indians. His destination being the town of Tookabatcha, he established posts upon the route, for the purpose of keeping up a communication and facilitating the transportation of supplies. Marching from post to post, as they were established, he at length encamped on the Calebee Creek, upon the high lands bordering its swamp.*

* This creek runs in a northwestern direction, through Macon county, Alabama.

Jan. 27 1814: At twenty minutes past five o?clock in the morning, the Red Sticks, who had secreted themselves in the swamp during the latter part of the night, sprung upon the Georgians like tigers, driving in their sentinels, and taking the whole army by surprise. In twenty minutes the action became general, and the front right and left flanks of the Americans were closely pressed, but the enemy was met at every point. The front line was preserved by the steady fire of the artillery, under Captain Thomas, aided by the riflemen of Captain Adams. These troops suffered severely, for the enemy rushed within thirty yards of the cannon. Captain John Broadnax, who commanded one of the picket guards, maintained his post, until a party of Indians had cut off his retreat to the main army. In this desperate situation his resolute band cut their way through to their friends, assisted by Timpoochy Barnard, a half-breed, at the head of some Uchees. The other friendly Indians, with a few exceptions, taking refuge within the lines, remained alarmed and inactive while the battle lasted. When day appeared the battalions of Majors Watson and Freeman were ordered to wheel up at right angles. Those of Majors Booth and Cleavland, who formed the right wing, received the same order, while Captain Hamilton’s cavalry was instructed to form in the rear of the right wing, to act as circumstances required. A charge was now made, and the Red Sticks gave way before the bayonet. The cavalry, falling upon them, made considerable havoc, and followed by the friendly Indians and the rifle companies of Merriweather and Ford pursued them through Calebee swamp. From the traces of blood and the number of head-dresses and warclubs found in various directions, the loss of the enemy must have been considerable. In the commencement of the action Colonel Newnan was wounded by three balls, which deprived the commander of the services of that gallant and useful officer. Adjutant-General Narden, whose horse was wounded under him, performed important services, while the aid-de-camp of Floyd also had his horse killed under him His additional aids, General Lee and Major Pace, acted in a manner highly honorable to themselves and useful to the army. The loss of the Americans was seventeen killed and one hundred and thirty-two wounded, to which must be added the loss of the friendly Indians, who had five killed and fifteen wounded. The Georgians fought with great resolution; but, assailed before day, with no fortifications around them, the Indians, until the charge was made, had the advantage, and made use of it.* The large number of wounded Georgians, the proximity of the enemy, who continued to hover around them, indicating a disposition to renew the attack, were reasons deemed sufficient by Floyd for relinquishing the main object of the expedition, retracing his steps, and awaiting further reinforcements. He accordingly marched from Calebee to Fort Hull, one of his newly erected posts, and the next night the Indians were in possession of the battle field.

Feb. 2 1814: Leaving at Fort Hull a small garrison, he returned to Fort Mitchell, upon the Chattahoochie, which he believed, from information, was soon to be attacked. Although the Georgia army had gallantly maintained their ground at the battle of Calebee, the Indians stopped their further march into the nation, and caused them in a few days to retreat.*

* Zachariah McGirth, hearing a despatch from General Claiborne to Floyd, passed through the Calebee swamp late in the night, while it must have been filled with the enemy, and strangely reached the American camp in safety.

** Russell’s History of the Late War, pp. 242-243. Waldo’s Life of Jackson, pp. 124-126. Kendall’s Life of Jackson, p. 240.

General Jackson had employed the few militia who remained with him at Fort Strother, after the battles of Emuckfau and Enitachopco, in constructing flat-boats to descend the Coosa with stores for the use of the new army then being raised in Tennessee, which was to operate below.

Feb.15 1814: The Kialigee Chiefs, whose neutrality Jackson had viewed with suspicion, becoming alarmed, paid him a visit, and disclosed that the Ufaulas, New-Yaucas and Ocfuskes, the remnant of the Hillabees, the Fish Ponds, and many Red Sticks from other towns, were then in a bend of the Tallapoosa, and on an island near Emuckfau, where they had resolved to defend themselves to the last extremity. This information determined him to march upon them.

March 15-16: When the army arrived at Fort Strother, he embarked the stores in the flat-boats, which were to proceed down the Coosa in charge of the thirty-ninth regiment, and, leaving a garrison of four hundred and fifty men in Fort Strother, under the command of Colonel Steele, he began the march, for the third time, toward the seat of war. Within five days, Jackson reached the mouth of Cedar Creek, having been retarded by the cutting out of thirty miles of the road. The boats, in descending the river, meeting with some obstructions, finally reached this point also, where a fort was immediately commenced, which Jackson called Fort Williams, in honor of the commander of the thirty-ninth regiment. Mar. 22: A detachment returned to the camp, and reported that they had burned two Indian towns, lower down, but had seen no Red Sticks.

James Gibson

Cadet of the Military Academy, Oct. 20, 1806, to Dec. 12, 1808, when he was graduated and promoted in the Army to First Lieut., Light Artillery, Dec. 12, 1808

Served: in garrison at Atlantic Posts, and on S. W. Frontier, 1808-1812; (Captain, Light Artillery, May 2, 1810) and in the War of 1812-1815, on the Niagara Frontier, in 1812, participating in the Attack on “Queenstown Heights”, U. C., Oct. 13, 1812, on Inspection
(Major, Staff – Asst. Inspector-General, Apr. 2, 1813) (Colonel, Staff – Inspector-General, July 13, 1813) duty, 1812-1814

In the campaign of 1814 on the Niagara Frontier, being engaged in the Defense of “Fort Erie”, U. C., Aug. 3-Sep. 17, 1814, including its Bombardment, Aug. 13-15, Repulse of the enemy’s (Colonel, 4th Rifles, Feb. 21, 1814) Assault, Aug. 15, and Sortie from it upon the British batteries and siege works, where he was Killed, Sep. 17, 1814: Aged 33.

p90 and where, in the language of the official dispatch, he “fully sustained the high military reputation which he had before so justly acquired.”

Two officers said to be Wood and Col.” James Gibson” are shown in a painting done in 1840 by E. C. Watmough “Repulsion of the British at Fort Erie, 15th August 1814”. At this battle Colonel Wood and Gibson were distinguished.

However, a recent description of the painting describes Lieutenant John Watmough, later brevetted for his “gallant and meritorious” conduct at Fort Erie as being one of the two pictured. [5]

Fort Norfolk





Fort Niagara



Battle of Fort Niagara – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Niagara

Photos of the Fort – note the brick walls were built during the Civil War


Photos which can be enlarged if you pause on each


Interesting article relating to British & American Military relationships and events which could have changed the results of the War of 1812.


Photo of reproduction of the Brig Niagara – Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s Flag Ship on Lake Erie


An item which may be missing – the Fort was a Prisoner of War Camp for Germans during WWII. I recall to this day driving past in 1945 seeing a group but focused on one prisoner sitting at the wire looking out at me. There was at least one escapee – who made it all the way to the corner of Stone Rd and US 104 just outside Rochester N. Y.

German Prisoners of War




Fort George






Some sketches



http://www.uppercanadahistory.ca/1812/1812toc.html ,p.












Listing of Forts



Photos for download





Queenston Heights










Fort Erie


Two officers said to be Wood and Col.” James Gibson” are shown in a painting done in 1840 by E. C. Watmough “Repulsion of the British at Fort Erie, 15th August 1814”. At this battle Colonel Wood and Gibson were distinguished. However, a recent description of the painting describes Lieutenant John Watmough, later brevetted for his “gallant and meritorious” conduct at Fort Erie as being one of the two pictured.

The 4th assault was in essence a Forlorn Hope




Click to access Graves%20-%20William%20Drummond%20and%20the%20Battle%20of%20Fort%20Erie.pdf






William Partridge

Vol. I p74 18

(Born Vt.) (Ap’d Vt.)

Military History – Cadet of the Military Academy, Dec. 13, 1805, to Oct. 30, 1806, when he was graduated and promoted in the Army to Second Lieut., Corps of Engineers, Oct. 30, 1806.

p75 Served: at West Point, N. Y., 1807; as Asst. Engineer in the construction of the defenses of Charleston harbor, S. C., 1808-1810; (First Lieut., Corps of Engineers, Feb. 23, 1808) at West Point, N. Y., 1810-1811; and in the War of 1812-1815 with Great Britain, as
(Captain, Corps of Engineers, July 1, 1812)

Chief engineer, in the Campaign of 1812 in Michigan Territory, of the Army commanded by Major-General Hull, by whose Surrender of Detroit,1 Aug. 16, 1812, he was made a prisoner of war, being at the time too sick to attend to duty, and before being exchanged,
Died, Sep. 20, 1812, at Detroit, Mich.: Aged 24.

When Hull announced his determination to surrender, Captain Partridge broke his sword across his knee and threw the pieces at Hull’s feet.








West Point Graduates Killed in Action – War of 1812

Click on the Graduate’s Name, the Forts, and Battles

1812 US Flag

1812 US Flag

Maps of the 5 major North American Land Campaigns are at


Class of 1806

Eleazer Derby Wood – Bvt Ltc, Brilliant in Skill & Valor killed in sortie from Fort Erie Upper Canada, while gallantly leading and directing a column on the British batteries and siege works, 17 September 1814.

Wood at Ft Erie

WILLIAM PARTRIDGE – Captain, Corps of Engineers, chief engineer Michigan Territory; taken prisoner in surrender of Detroit. When his commanding general announced his determination to surrender, Partridge broke his sword across his knee and threw the pieces at that officer’s feet. Died a British prisoner of sickness 20 September 1812.

Note While Col McArthur broke his sword into 3 pieces tore off his epaulets threw himself on the ground and wept – it is conceivable Partridge broke his sword – http://www.whatwouldthefoundersthink.com/the-surrender-of-detroit

Class of 1808

Samuel B. Rathbone – Second Lieut., Reg. of Artillerists; Mortally wounded in attack on “Queenstown Heights’, Upper Canada Oct. 13, 1812, dying Dec. 8, 1812, at “Fort Niagara”, N. Y.

James Gibson – Colonel 4th Rifles, killed in Sortie against British guns, Fort Erie Sep. 17, 1814, where, in the language of the official dispatch, he “fully sustained the high military reputation which he had before so justly acquired.

Class of 1811

Alexander J. Williams – Captain, 2d Artillery, killed while being engaged in the Defense of Fort Erie, Upper Canada, where, in a hand-to-hand encounter, while repulsing the enemy’s fourth desperate assault upon the bastion of the work.

Henry A. Hobart – First Lieut. Light Artillery killed in capture of Fort George, Upper Canada, May 27, 1813, while gallantly leading his company to the attack.

Henry A. Burchstead – First Lieut., 2d Infantry Killed in the “Creek Campaign”, Nov. 30, 1813, on the Alabama River.

George Ronan – Ensign, 1st Infantry; First West Point graduate to be killed in action, Fort Dearborn Massacre while with Captain Heald’s desperate engagement near Ft. Chicago, Ill., Aug. 15, 1812, against a vastly superior force of savages, two of whom he slew in a hand-to-hand fight, but, while upon his knees as he had fallen faint from his bleeding wounds, still wielding his sword, Aug. 15, 1812.

Class of 1812

Joseph M. Wilcox – First Lieut., 3d Infantry, in “Creek Campaign” under Major-General Jackson, against the Creek Indians, and after two desperate fights with the hostile savages on the Alabama River, was killed (Tomahawked and Scalped), Jan. 15, 1814

William Wallace Smith – First Lieut., Light Artillery; Mortally wounded in Battle of “Chrystler’s Field”, while gallantly serving, with his own hands, a piece of artillery under his command, dying of wounds, Dec. 3, 1813, at Ft. Prescott, Upper Canada. In Adam Sherriff Scott’s painting Smith can be seen at his gun while the Army is in retreat.

Smith at his gun while the Army retreats

Smith at his gun while the Army retreats

Some thoughts on the war from the June 21, 20012 Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/06/the-warts-of-1812-the-unglamorous-truth-about-a-hyped-up-war/258614/

“All of those are events that come in the last months of the war when the British were mounting a counterattack against the United States.” Bill Taylor explained. “They are all events that lead Americans to think they were on the defensive in the war and that the British were the aggressor. What’s lost sight of is that the United States declared the war and conducted the first two years of the war primarily as an invasion of Canada. And so Americans don’t remember the battles in Canada because they went so badly for the United States.”

But this myopia ultimately served a useful purpose. For a country that was young and divided and lacked a national identity, the legacy of the War of 1812 created heroes like Andrew Jackson and Oliver Perry as well as national symbols and slogans that endure today.

“Those three major events are certainly an important part of the legacy of the war in the public memory,” Professor Donald Hickey, author of The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict, suggested. “All those symbols of the war have developed an iconic significance. Uncle Sam, the Fort McHenry flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, the Kentucky rifle — these all help Americans understand who they are and where they are headed as a nation.”


Taken from – http://ckwarof1812.weebly.com/time-line.html

The Web Site provides details of several Campaigns.